Abstract Linked Data

In der Informatik hat Linked Data zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. Während heute immer noch viele Texte im Internet über Hyperlinks verbunden werden, treiben sowohl Großunternehmen wie „Google“, „Yahoo“ und „Facebook“, als auch Linkend Open Data, welches für jeden frei verwendbar ist, die Entwicklung voran. So werden ganze Bibliotheken durch Linked Data umstrukturiert und Search Engines verbessert. Das gesamte Web dient dabei als Grundlage. Dazu  werden veröffentlichte Daten so strukturiert und verlinkt, dass sie semantisch vernetzt sind. Diese Daten werden aber nicht einfach „nur“ verlinkt, sondern dabei auch miteinander in Beziehung gesetzt werden. Daraus eröffnen sich für einen Nutzer eine Vielzahl von effektiveren Möglichkeiten Informationen zu sammeln.
Technisch ist dies durch URI-, RDF und HTTP-Technologien umsetzbar. Das Besondere daran ist, dass Maschinen verarbeiten können, was semantisch eigentlich nur Menschen erfasst werden kann.
Tim Bernes-Lee, einer der größten Vorreiter in dieser Thematik, war überzeugt davon, das Linked Data das Web evolutionieren wird. Diese Paper soll eine Übersicht darüber geben.

Literaturquellen

Da Linked Data ein großes Feld an möglichen Themen bietet, konnte ich mich bis jetzt noch nicht für eines entscheiden. Daher habe ich mir Quellen gesucht, die entweder relativ allgemein oder in einer für mich interessante Richtung gehen.
Hauptsächlich habe ich auf die Anzahl der Zitierungen , Referenzen und die Autoren geachtet. Zum lesen bin ich noch nicht gkommen; die Abstracts und ein kurzes Überfliegen des Textes waren aber meistens aufschlussreich.

1. Bizer, Christian, Tom Heath, and Tim Berners-Lee. „Linked data-the story so far.“ Semantic Services, Interoperability and Web Applications: Emerging Concepts (2009): 205-227.

2. Tummarello, Giovanni, Renaud Delbru, and Eyal Oren. Sindice. com: Weaving the open linked data. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2007.

3. Auer, Sören, et al. „Triplify: light-weight linked data publication from relational databases.“ Proceedings of the 18th international conference on World wide web. ACM, 2009.

4. Heath, Tom, and Christian Bizer. „Linked data: Evolving the web into a global data space.“ Synthesis lectures on the semantic web: theory and technology 1.1 (2011): 1-136.

5.Cimiano, Philipp, and Christina Unger. „Multilingualität und Linked Data.“ Linked Enterprise Data. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014. 153-175.

#homework

Warp Drive Research Key to Interstellar Travel

Warp-drive engines are mostly known from movies like Star Trek. Stuff from fantasies. But suprisingly it is investigated in the real world as well. NASA is researching if it is possible to build such an engine. A tabletop experiment designed to create tiny distortions in spacetimeIf could be the answer. If there experiments are successful it might be indeed possible.
Many physicists are still sceptical and NASA itself only puts a very small amount (50.000$) of there budget into the research lead by Harold „Sunny“ White. On the otherside it is a suprise that the federal goverment supports the project at all. So some hope seems to be justified.
Scientists, engineers and amateur space enthusiasts have therefore founded organizations like the „100 Year Starship project“, the „Tau Zero Foundation“ or the „Icarus Interstellar“.
With time we have explored the universe a lot more. We know now that there might be planets that could support life. But the time to get there is unreasonable. It is necessary to research faster ways. Warp-drive engines would be just one possibilty. Icarus Interstellar for example is also exploring the use of fusion power. Till now though, all projects have been unseccessful. It could not prove itself on earth yet. Interstellar dust is also a problem. It can cause plenty of damage to a probe. A spacecraft would need shields and a heavy load of fuel to carry the weight and slow itself down.
The fact of all this complications could explain why we never met aliens. Still research goes on. And it is nesscessary, if we listen to advocates such as Jill Tarter, who stated that exploring other star systems is essential to humanity’s long-term survival. The earth is permatly on risk. In our solar system only Mars is close to being habitable, but it would take hundreds of years to make it actually livable to humans. Though we would need to find other planets in other solar systems.

Punctuation Game

We live in the era of Big Data with storage and transmission capacity, measured not just in terabytes but in petabytes (where peta- denotes a quadrillion or a thousand trillion). Data collection is constant and even insidious with every click and every “like” stored somewhere for something. This book reminds us that data is anything but “raw”, that we shouldn’t think of data as a natural resource, but as a cultural one, that needs to be generated, protected and interpreted. The book’s essays describe eight episodes, in the history of data from the predigital to the digital. Together, they address such issues as the ways, that different kinds of data and different domains of inquiry are mutually defining how data are variously “cooked” in the processes of their collection and use and conflicts over what can or can’t be “reduced” to data. Contributors discuss the intellectual history of data as a concept, describe early financial modeling and some unusual sources for astronomical data discover, the prehistory of the database in newspaper clippings and index cards and consider contemporary “dataveillance” of our online habits, as well as the complexity of scientific data curation.

During succession, ecosystem development occurs, but in the long term absence of catastrophic disturbance, a decline phase eventually follows. We studied six long term chronosequences in Australia, Sweden, Alaska, Hawaii and New Zealand; for each the decline phase was associated with a reduction in tree basal area and an increase in the substrate nitrogen to phosphorus ratio indicating increasing phosphorus limitation over time. These changes were often associated with reductions in litter decomposition rates, phosphorus release from litter and biomass, and activity of decomposer microbes. Our findings suggest, that the maximal biomass phase reached during succession cannot be maintained in the long term absence of major disturbance and that similar patterns of decline occur in forested ecosystems, spanning the tropical temperate and boreal zones.